For Ki-67. LC with docetaxel increased the amount of apoptotic cells by 98 or 392 in comparison to docetaxel or LC alone, respectively (which was followed by lowered survival level). There was no statistically substantial difference for the Ki-67 test [63]. The results indicated that LC could constitute a potent agent for combination therapy. 5.three. Lycopene–Mechanistic Research in Humans The actions of carotenoids on the human body may be confirmed only via direct proof by carotenoid effects in human research. “The Molecular Effects of Nutritional Supplement” (MENS) trial studied effects of supplementation with 30 mg/day of LC for 3 months in 84 males with a low risk of Computer. The point of concern within this study was the hypothetic interaction of IGF-1 and its receptor (IGF-IR) in Testicular Receptor 4 Proteins Source healthful prostatic tissue (not affected by tumor growth). As the measured entity mRNA was chosen. This study resulted in almost no impact of LC on IGF-1 and IGF-1R mRNA. CT values for the placebo and intervention group have been similar (0.18; p = 0.93). Furthermore, for IGF-1R, no alterations have been observed (p = 0.53). Following measuring PSA concentrations, no difference was reported [105].Antioxidants 2021, 10,25 ofLimited conclusions is usually drawn from this study, as only wholesome prostatic tissue was investigated. Because the greater expression of IGF-1 improved the susceptibility to LC in Pc cell lines, it may very well be hypothesized that comparable effects would be observed in native Computer. Based on the presented study, this could not be stated for certain–as it is unclear whether no transform in mRNA is equal to no transform in protein activity or expression, because of the extensively reported effect of carotenoids on the translational approach and PTMs of proteins. In addition, the study didn’t adjust for age or other important aspects. The samples were used once again in an additional study, analyzing basic molecular pathways in typical prostate tissue right after a 3-month supplementation of 30 mg/day of LC. Following complementary DNA (cDNA) microarrays, no adjustments for any genes have been considerable. The authors then decided to analyze various molecular pathways. A more than 1.5-fold increase was observed for Nrf2-mediated oxidative pressure response, apoptosis and ceramide signaling, glutamate metabolism, glutathione metabolism and PXR/RXR activation. One of the most pronounced distinction was Nrf2-mediated oxidative tension relief [106] displaying once more the value of this pathway for carotenoid action. The last study aiming to assess the molecular actions of LC in humans was performed in 2015. A group of ten guys with high-grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (HGPIN) and/or atypical small acinar proliferation (ASAP) have been treated with 35 mg of LC, 55 of selenium and 600 mg of green tea polyphenols everyday or with placebo for 1 month (phase I). Then, right after periodic evaluation, 50 new participants had been enrolled, all 60 participants had been once more randomized into equal groups (30 men in each, preserving the same schedule of allocation as in phase I) along with the study continued for 6 months (phase II). In the end, every participant underwent 12-core prostate biopsies. Phase I was intended to acquire data around the concentration of LC in sera, stability, and potential adverse reactions, whereas in phase II the presence (and possibly grade) of Angiotensinogen Proteins Formulation Computer or HGPIN/ASAP was of major interest. From eight individuals, prostatic tissue (from tumor affected internet sites) was taken for miRNA expression profiling. In this study, a high medium concentration of LC in.