Iated by certain domains with distinct saccharide sequences [9,16]. By way of CD196/CCR6 Proteins Recombinant Proteins example, the interaction of heparin/HS with fibroblast development factor (FGF)-1 and FGF-2 needs different saccharide sequences with various combinations of sulfate groups [170]. Polysaccharides that are extracted from brown marine algae, fucoidans, represent a source of marine compounds with possible applications in medicine as naturally occurring heparinoids. Fucoidans are a sub-group of heparinoids which have been proposed as alternative anticoagulants to heparin. Fucoidans are highly sulfated polysaccharides (300), like heparin, but they contain neither N-acetylated nor N-sulfated groups. Rather, the polysaccharide is mostly composed of 4-sulfated 1,2-linked -l-fucose with branching or perhaps a sulfate group at C-3. Fucoidans happen to be reported to possess anti-aggregation of platelets, and anti-thrombotic, anti-infective and anti-inflammatory activities [213]. The low hemorrhagic effects of fucoidans as in comparison to heparin are because of their low anti-aggregation effect [24,25]. Chitin would be the important organic element with the exoskeleton of crabs, shrimps, and insects and it is actually a (14 linked) co-polymer of N-acetyl-glucosamine units. Chitosan can be a item obtained in the de-N-acetylation of chitin in the presence of hot alkali [26]. Chitosan interacts with FGF-2 and protects it from inactivation [27]. A chemically sulfonated chitosan, as semi-synthetic heparinoids, has structural and functional similarities to heparin [28]. Chemically, sulfonated dextran (dextran sulfate) has low anticoagulant activity, but high lipoprotein-releasing activity [29]. The therapy of capsular K5 polysaccharide from Escherichia coli with mild acid to take away branches affords a (14 linked) copolymer of GlcNAc and GlcA [30,31]. New chemical-enzymatic technologies that happen to be determined by the modification of bacterial capsular K5 polysaccharides have offered numerous semi-synthetic heparinoids with distinct biological activities. Two families of sulfated compounds that differ in their hexuronate content have already been synthesized when using these technologies. The initial group includes only GlcA, whereas the second group contains approximately 50 IdoA following epimerization by immobilized recombinant C5 epimerase [32,33]. This has led towards the improvement of a variety of anticoagulant and non-anticoagulant K5 derivatives following particular ester O-sulfations that have been endowed with different–and at times extremely specific–antitumor, antiviral, and/or anti-inflammatory activities [32,33]. The above-mentioned activities of heparin-binding cytokines take place within the ECM by way of certain non-covalent interactions with, by way of example, ECM receptor molecules and PGs in which multiple GAGs are covalently attached [34]. These localized interactions have inspired the improvement of Integrin beta 2/CD18 Proteins Source biomaterials that boost and regulate the heparin-binding cytokine activities for practical applications [357]. For example, biomaterials which can be modified with heparinoids may perhaps exhibit elevated stability and controlled release and activation. Additionally, polyelectrolytes, such as heparinoids within the ECM, retain heparin-binding cytokines in the cell-material interface by means of particular interactions [38,39]. Herein, we review the structures of heparin/HS, and biological activities and therapeutic possible of heparinoids. Heparin/HS function to localize and handle heparin-binding cytokine activity, as do several heparin/HS-based biomaterials, such.