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Worldwide Journal ofMolecular SciencesReviewCytochrome P450 Enzymes and Drug Metabolic process in HumansMingzhe Zhao 1, , Jingsong Ma two, , Mo Li one , Yingtian Zhang 1 , Bixuan Jiang one , Xianglong Zhao one , Cong Huai 1 , Lu Shen one , Na Zhang 1 , Lin He one and Shengying Qin one, Bio-X Institutes, Crucial Laboratory for that Genetics of Developmental and Neuropsychiatric Disorders (Ministry of Education), Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200030, China; [email protected] (M.Z.); [email protected] (M.L.); [email protected] (Y.Z.); [email protected] (B.J.); [email protected] (X.Z.); [email protected] (C.H.); mailer.shen@gmail (L.S.); [email protected] (N.Z.); [email protected] (L.H.) Institutes for Shanghai Pudong Decoding Lifestyle, Shanghai 200135, China; [email protected] Correspondence: [email protected] These authors equally contributed to this perform.Citation: Zhao, M.; Ma, J.; Li, M.; Zhang, Y.; Jiang, B.; Zhao, X.; Huai, C.; Shen, L.; Zhang, N.; He, L.; et al. Cytochrome P450 Enzymes and Drug Metabolic process in Humans. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22, 12808. doi.org/ ten.3390/ijms222312808 Academic Editor: Patrick M. Dansette Obtained: 27 October 2021 Accepted: 24 November 2021 Published: 26 NovemberAbstract: Human cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes, as membrane-bound hemoproteins, play significant roles in the detoxification of drugs, cellular metabolic process, and homeostasis. In humans, just about 80 of oxidative metabolism and approximately 50 on the all round elimination of typical clinical medication is often attributed to one particular or additional from the different CYPs, from your CYP families one. In addition to the basic metabolic effects for elimination, CYPs may also be ALDH1 Purity & Documentation capable of CCR1 Formulation affecting drug responses by influencing drug action, safety, bioavailability, and drug resistance through metabolism, in each metabolic organs and regional web sites of action. Structures of CYPs have a short while ago provided new insights into both knowing the mechanisms of drug metabolism and exploiting CYPs as drug targets. Genetic polymorphisms and epigenetic modifications in CYP genes and environmental components could be accountable for interethnic and interindividual variations from the therapeutic efficacy of medication. In this overview, we summarize and highlight the structural knowledge about CYPs and the key CYPs in drug metabolic process. On top of that, genetic and epigenetic variables, likewise as numerous intrinsic and extrinsic things that contribute to interindividual variation in drug response are also reviewed, to reveal the multifarious and significant roles of CYP-mediated metabolism and elimination in drug treatment. Keywords and phrases: cytochrome P450; drug metabolic process; genetic polymorphisms; protein structure1. Introduction D