Would be the experimental information (Table 1) were fitted towards the following second-order polynomial equation employing the evaluation process with the Style Expert computer software version 6.01 (Stat-Ease, Minneapolis, MN, USA): moles of FAME produced one hundred three moles of oil (four)Y = 0 + i xi + ii xi2 +i =1 i =1 i =j =i +ij ix xj(five)Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013,exactly where Y is response (conversion of FAME); 0, i, ii, and ij are continual coefficients; and xi and xj are the uncoded independent variables. All analytical measures which includes analysis of variance (ANOVA), regression analysis, optimization of the variables, and plotting of response surfaces were performed making use of the exact same software program. four. Conclusions In this operate, we demonstrated the prospective of P. cepacia lipase immobilized on MNP as a biocatalyst for the synthesis of FAME working with WCO as a feedstock, along with the conversion of FAME reached 79 below optimal reaction situations, which was comparable to these utilizing other lipases in immobilized form. The proposed procedure might reduce the production price of biodiesel and facilitate the disposal of WCO. The immobilized lipase TrkC Inhibitor custom synthesis exhibited fantastic storage stability at four and can be effortlessly recovered by magnetic field for repeated use. Roughly 80 of your initial FAME conversion was retained soon after three repeated utilizes when lipase-bound MNP was washed with tert-butanol. Nevertheless, the reusability and storage stability at room temperature demand additional improvement for the immobilized lipase to be practical for industrial applications. Thermal inactivation is important for both reusability and storage stability. One particular possible strategy for improvement is usually to use thermally steady lipases [39,40]. Since significant level of lipase-bound MNP was made use of for the transesterification, these away from the magnetic field have been very easily washed off through recycling. Such loss on the biocatalyst might be reduced if stronger magnetic field is applied. Alternatively, the loss of lipase-bound MNP through recycling might be improved by utilizing a packed-bed reactor, which also allows for continuous removal of goods and protection of the enzyme from mechanical shear. Acknowledgments Financial supports from National Science Council (NSC 100-2221-E-036-034) and Tatung University (B96-S03-059) are gratefully acknowledged. Conflicts of Interest The authors declare no conflict of interest. References 1. two. three. 4. five. Canakci, M.; Sanli, H. Biodiesel production from several PKCĪ· Activator site feedstocks and their effects on the fuel properties. J. Ind. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 2008, 35, 43141. Canakci, M.; Gerpen, J.V. Biodiesel production from oils and fats with higher no cost fatty acids. Trans. ASAE 2001, 44, 1429436. Kulkarni, M.G.; Dalai, A.K. Waste cooking oil-an economical supply for biodiesel: A critique. Ind. Eng. Chem. Res. 2006, 45, 2901913. Escobar, J.C.; Lora, E.S.; Venturini, O.J.; Y ez, E.E.; Castillo, E.F.; Almazan, O. Biofuels: Environment, technology and food safety. Renew. Sustain. Energy Rev. 2009, 13, 1275287. Hasan, F.; Shah, A.A.; Hameed, A. Industrial applications of microbial lipases. Enzyme Microbial. Technol. 2006, 39, 23551.Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14 6. 7. eight. 9. 10. 11. 12.13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21.22. 23. 24.Bisen, P.; Sanodiya, B.; Thakur, G.; Baghel, R.; Prasad, G. Biodiesel production with particular emphasis on lipase-catalyzed transesterification. Biotechnol. Lett. 2010, 32, 1019030. Jegannathan, K.R.; Abang, S.; Poncelet, D.; Chan, E.S.; Ravindra, P. Production of biodiesel employing immobilized lipase–A vital r.